Python Object-Oriented Programming

Are you ready to take your Python skills to the next level? Do you want to learn how to write more efficient, organized, and reusable code? If so, then you're in the right place! In this article, we're going to dive deep into the world of Python Object-Oriented Programming (OOP).

What is Object-Oriented Programming?

Before we get into the specifics of Python OOP, let's first define what Object-Oriented Programming is. OOP is a programming paradigm that focuses on creating objects that have properties and methods. These objects can interact with each other to perform tasks and solve problems.

In OOP, everything is an object. Objects are instances of classes, which are like blueprints for creating objects. Classes define the properties and methods that objects of that class will have.

Why Use Object-Oriented Programming?

So why should you use OOP in your Python code? There are several benefits to using OOP:

Classes and Objects in Python

Now that we know what OOP is and why we should use it, let's dive into how to use it in Python. In Python, everything is an object, including classes. To define a class in Python, you use the class keyword, followed by the name of the class:

class MyClass:

This creates a new class called MyClass. The pass keyword is used as a placeholder for the class body. We'll add properties and methods to this class later.

To create an object of a class, you use the class name followed by parentheses:

my_object = MyClass()

This creates a new object of the MyClass class and assigns it to the variable my_object.

Properties and Methods

Now that we know how to create classes and objects in Python, let's add some properties and methods to our MyClass class. Properties are variables that belong to an object, while methods are functions that belong to an object.

class MyClass:
    def __init__(self, name): = name

    def say_hello(self):
        print(f"Hello, my name is {}")

In this example, we've added two methods to our MyClass class: __init__ and say_hello. The __init__ method is a special method that is called when an object of the class is created. It takes the self parameter, which refers to the object being created, and any additional parameters that are passed in when the object is created.

In this case, we're passing in a name parameter, which we're assigning to the name property of the object using the syntax.

The say_hello method takes the self parameter and uses the property to print a greeting.

To create an object of the MyClass class and call the say_hello method, we can do the following:

my_object = MyClass("John")
my_object.say_hello()  # Output: Hello, my name is John


One of the key features of OOP is inheritance. Inheritance allows you to create a new class that is a modified version of an existing class. The new class inherits all the properties and methods of the existing class, and can add or modify them as needed.

To create a new class that inherits from an existing class, you use the name of the existing class in parentheses after the new class name:

class MyChildClass(MyClass):
    def say_goodbye(self):
        print(f"Goodbye, my name is {}")

In this example, we've created a new class called MyChildClass that inherits from the MyClass class. We've added a new method called say_goodbye that prints a farewell message.

To create an object of the MyChildClass class and call the say_hello and say_goodbye methods, we can do the following:

my_child_object = MyChildClass("Jane")
my_child_object.say_hello()  # Output: Hello, my name is Jane
my_child_object.say_goodbye()  # Output: Goodbye, my name is Jane


Another key feature of OOP is polymorphism. Polymorphism allows you to use objects of different classes interchangeably, as long as they have the same methods.

class MyOtherClass:
    def __init__(self, name): = name

    def say_hello(self):
        print(f"Hello, my name is {}")

def say_hello_twice(obj):

my_object = MyClass("John")
my_other_object = MyOtherClass("Jane")

say_hello_twice(my_object)  # Output: Hello, my name is John\nHello, my name is John
say_hello_twice(my_other_object)  # Output: Hello, my name is Jane\nHello, my name is Jane

In this example, we've created a new class called MyOtherClass that has a say_hello method. We've also created a new function called say_hello_twice that takes an object as a parameter and calls the say_hello method twice.

We can pass objects of both the MyClass and MyOtherClass classes to the say_hello_twice function, because they both have a say_hello method.


Python Object-Oriented Programming is a powerful tool that can help you write more efficient, organized, and reusable code. By creating classes and objects, you can break your code into smaller, more manageable pieces, and reuse code across your program.

In this article, we've covered the basics of Python OOP, including classes, objects, properties, methods, inheritance, and polymorphism. With this knowledge, you can start writing more advanced Python programs that take advantage of OOP.

So what are you waiting for? Start exploring the world of Python OOP today!

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